In the vast realm of video content, subtitles play a crucial role in enhancing accessibility and user experience. Whether you’re a content creator, a viewer, or someone with hearing impairments, understanding the different types of subtitles is essential. We will delve into the four primary categories of subtitles—open captions, closed captions, Subtitles for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing (SDH), and Forced Narrative (FN) subtitles.

If you’ve ever wondered about the nuances of subtitles and how they cater to diverse needs, read on to unravel the intricacies. Let’s make the world of subtitles more accessible and comprehensible for everyone.

4 Different Types of Subtitles

Subtitles are crucial for video accessibility, and there are four main types: Open Captions (always visible), Closed Captions (toggleable), Subtitles for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing (include additional information), and Forced Narrative Subtitles (appear selectively for translation). Each type serves specific needs, enhancing the overall viewing experience.

  1. Open Captions

    Open captions are an integral part of a video , always visible and embedded directly into the content. Unlike other subtitle types, they can’t be turned off by the viewer. This makes them an excellent choice for content meant to be universally understood, aiding not only the hearing-impaired but also viewers in noisy environments or those learning a new language.

  2. Closed Captions

    Closed captions, on the other hand, provide the flexibility of being turned on or off by the viewer. They offer a more personalised viewing experience, accommodating the preferences of the audience. Closed captions are commonly used for broadcast television, streaming services, and online videos, contributing to a more inclusive and user-friendly digital landscape.

  3. Subtitles for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing (SDH)

    SDH subtitles go beyond mere text representation of spoken words. They include additional information about sound effects, music, and other auditory elements, ensuring a comprehensive viewing experience for individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing. This type of subtitle bridges the gap between the auditory and visual aspects of content, enriching the storytelling for a wider audience.

  4. Forced Narrative (FN) Subtitles

    Forced Narrative subtitles are a unique category designed to translate or interpret specific on-screen text or foreign language dialogue. They appear only when relevant, ensuring that the viewer receives essential information without cluttering the screen unnecessarily. FN subtitles are commonly used in films and TV shows that involve multilingual dialogues or significant on-screen text elements.

different types of subtitles

Pros and Cons of Each Type

Open Captions


  • Universally accessible.
  • Ideal for conveying information in noisy environments.
  • Suitable for language learners.


  • Lack of viewer control.
  • May distract from the visual content.

Closed Captions


  • Viewer control for a personalized experience.
  • Compliance with accessibility standards.
  • Enhances SEO for video content.


  • May be ignored or turned off by some viewers.
  • Potential for synchronisation issues.

Subtitles for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing (SDH)


  • Comprehensive accessibility for deaf and hard-of-hearing individuals.
  • Inclusive representation of auditory elements.


  • Increased complexity in production.
  • May clutter the screen with additional information.

Forced Narrative (FN) Subtitles


  • Facilitates understanding of foreign language content
  • Contextual display enhances the viewer experience.


  • Requires careful synchronization.
  • Limited application to specific content types.

Choosing the Right Subtitle Type for Your Content

Choosing the right type of subtitles for your content involves considering various factors to ensure an inclusive and effective viewing experience for your audience. Here are some key factors to consider when deciding between open captions, closed captions, SDH subtitles, and FN subtitles:

Audience Accessibility

  • Open Captions: These are burned into the video and cannot be turned off. They are always visible, making them suitable for audiences who require constant access to subtitles.
  • Closed Captions: Viewers can turn closed captions on or off based on their preferences. This provides flexibility for viewers who may not always need subtitles.

Content Localisation

  • Open Captions:Ideal for content that will be distributed globally, as the subtitles are part of the video and do not rely on the viewer’s settings.
  • Closed Captions: Provide flexibility for localisation as viewers can choose to enable captions in their preferred language.
  • SDH Subtitles (Subtitles for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing): Include additional information such as sound effects and speaker identification, aiming to provide a more comprehensive experience for viewers with hearing impairments.
  • FN Subtitles (Forced Narrative): These are subtitles that appear even when the dialogue is in the viewer’s language. They are often used for translating signs, labels, or foreign languages within a video.

User Control and Preferences

  • Closed Captions: Offer the most user control, allowing viewers to turn subtitles on or off, change language, and adjust the appearance of the subtitles.
  • SDH Subtitles: Include features that enhance the viewing experience for individuals with hearing impairments but may be less customisable than closed captions.

Aesthetic Considerations

  • Open Captions: Provide a consistent and integrated look, but may be less aesthetically pleasing to some viewers.
  • Closed Captions: Allow for more customisation in terms of font, size, color, and placement, providing a better aesthetic experience for some users.

Production Workflow

  • Open Captions: Integrated into the video during the production process, making them a permanent part of the video file.
  • Closed Captions: Added separately and can be created and edited using various captioning tools, providing more flexibility in the post-production phase.

Multilingual Content

Closed Captions: Allow for easy switching between languages, making them suitable for content intended for diverse audiences.

Ultimately, the choice between open captions, closed captions, SDH subtitles, and FN subtitles depends on the specific needs of your audience, the nature of your content, and your production workflow. It’s important to prioritise inclusivity and consider the diverse preferences and requirements of your viewers.

different types of subtitles


The world of subtitles is diverse, catering to various needs and preferences. Open captions provide universal accessibility, closed captions offer flexibility, SDH subtitles enrich the experience for the deaf and hard of hearing, while Forced Narrative subtitles bridge language gaps. Each type has its pros and cons, influencing its suitability for different contexts.

By understanding these subtleties, content creators can make informed decisions to enhance the accessibility and inclusivity of their videos. Whether you’re a filmmaker, educator, or content consumer, being aware of the different subtitle types empowers you to navigate the digital landscape more effectively.

Ready to elevate your content accessibility? Explore the world of subtitles and make your videos resonate with a broader audience. Continue reading for practical insights and actionable tips.

Learn more about the nuances of subtitles and translation services and discover how to optimise your content for diverse audiences.

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